Elbow Issues

Golfer’s Elbow

Causes
Overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and elbow are the most common reason people develop golfer’s elbow. Repeating some types of activities over and over again can put too much strain on the elbow tendons. These activities are not necessarily high-level sports competition. Shoveling, gardening, and hammering nails can all cause the pain of golfer’s elbow. Swimmers who try to pick up speed by powering their arm through the water can also strain the flexor tendon at the elbow.

In some cases, the symptoms of golfer’s elbow are due to inflammation. In an acute injury, the body under-goes an inflammatory response. Special inflammatory cells make their way to the injured tissues to help them heal. Conditions that involve inflammation are indicated by -itis on the end of the word. For example, inflammation in a tendon is called tendonitis. Inflammation around the medial epicondyle is called medial epicondylitis.

However, golfer’s elbow often is not caused by inflammation. Rather, it is a problem within the cells of the tendon. Doctors call this condition tendonosis. In tendonosis, wear and tear is thought to lead to tissue degeneration. A degenerated tendon usually has an abnormal arrangement of collagen fibers.

Instead of inflammatory cells, the body produces a type of cells called fibroblasts. When this happens, the collagen loses its strength. It becomes fragile and can break or be easily injured. Each time the collagen breaks down, the body responds by forming scar tissue in the tendon. Eventually, the tendon becomes thickened from extra scar tissue.

No one really knows exactly what causes tendonosis. Some doctors think that the forearm tendon develops small tears with too much activity. The tears try to heal, but constant strain and overuse keep re-injuring the tendon. After a while, the tendons stop trying to heal. The scar tissuenever has a chance to fully heal, leaving the injured areas weakened and painful.

Symptoms
The main symptom of golfer’s elbow is tenderness and pain at the medial epicondyle of the elbow. Pain usually starts at the medial epicondyle and may spread down the forearm. Bending your wrist, twisting your forearm down, or grasping objects can make the pain worse. You may feel less strength when grasping items or squeezing your hand into a fist.