Elbow Issues

Meniscal Injuries

Causes
Meniscal injuries can occur at any age, but the causes are somewhat different for each age group. In younger people, the meniscus is a fairly tough and rubbery structure. Tears in the meniscus in patients under 30 years old usually occur as a result of a fairly forceful twisting injury. In the younger age group, meniscal tears are more likely to be caused by a sport activity. The entire inner rim of the medial meniscus can be torn in what is called a bucket handle tear. The meniscus can also have a flap torn from the inner rim.

The tissue that forms the menisci weakens with age, making the menisci prone to degeneration and tearing. People of older ages often end up with a tear as result of a minor injury, such as from the up-and-down motion of squatting. Most often, there isn’t one specific injury to the knee that leads to the degenerative type of meniscal tear. These tears of the menisci are commonly seen as a part of the overall condition of osteoarthritis of the knee in aging adults. Degenerative tears cause the menisci to fray and become torn in many directions.

Symptoms
The most common problem caused by a torn meniscus is pain. The pain may be felt along the edge of the knee joint closest to where the meniscus is located. Or the pain may be more vague and involve the whole knee.

The knee may swell, causing it to feel stiff and tight. This is usually because fluid accumulates inside the knee joint. This is sometimes called water on the knee. This is not unique to meniscal tears, since it can also occur when the knee becomes inflamed.

The knee joint can also lock up if the tear is large enough. Locking refers to the inability to completely straighten out the knee. This can happen when a fragment of the meniscus tears free and gets caught in the hinge mechanism of the knee, like a pencil stuck in the hinge of a door.

A torn meniscus can cause long-term problems. The constant rubbing of the torn meniscus on the articular cartilage may cause the joint surface to become worn, leading to knee osteoarthritis.